L'UMR EMMAH : Environnement Méditerranéen et Modélisation des Agro-Hydrosystèmes

Les recherches menées par l’UMR EMMAH portent sur la compréhension et la modélisation du fonctionnement des agrosystèmes en interaction avec les hydrosystèmes souterrains. Ceci amène l’UMR à considérer le système aquifère-sol-plante-atmosphère à différentes échelles de temps et d’espace. Le fonctionnement de ce système nécessite, pour le comprendre et le modéliser, de prendre en compte de nombreuses interactions entre la dynamique du couvert végétal, les processus physiques, chimiques, biologiques dans les sols, les interactions avec l’atmosphère et les hydrosystèmes ainsi que les modalités de gestion des agrosystèmes. Les travaux menés visent, notamment, à caractériser à différentes échelles spatiales (du millimètre au kilomètre) et temporelles (de la seconde à quelques décennies), les flux de masse entre l’atmosphère, le couvert végétal, le sol et l’aquifère souterrain et les processus intervenant dans la production végétale en relation avec les facteurs du milieu. Ainsi, l’UMR EMMAH contribue à l’évaluation de la durabilité des ressources hydriques souterraines et des systèmes de culture dans un double contexte de changements globaux et de transition agroécologique. Le pourtour méditerranéen reste un terrain d’étude privilégié, région marquée par une évolution rapide du climat et des tensions fortes sur l’eau liées à l’adaptation des systèmes de cultures et une forte pression démographique.

Liste Actualités

Toutes les actualités
Article

22 mai 2024

Rédaction: M. Weiss, Emmah web

Ma thèse depuis l’espace

Rhianna a participé à "ma thèse depuis l’espace" organisée le 14 mai 2024.
Traveau Urcel EGU 2024
Urcel Kalenga-Tshingomba a présenté son travail de postdoc à la conférence internationale de l'EGU.
Le 28 mars dernier sur le site INRAE d’Avignon, EMMAH a participé à l’organisation d’une journée d’étude portée par l’unité ECODEV sur la traction équine en agriculture et ses apports à la transition agroécologique.
Image illustrant annonce émission TV sur "le front"
Lundi 18 mars à 21h05 sur France 5 et sur france.tv, Céline Pelosi interviendra dans l'émission "Sur le Front".

HAL : Dernières publications

  • [hal-04390996] Farmland expansion and intensification do not foster local food self-sufficiency. Insights from the Mediterranean area

    Bridging the gap between the micro and the macro scale in modelling food security to inform context-specific regionalised policies remains a major scientific challenge. A better understanding of the relations between global and local drivers impacting local food self-sufficiency (LFSS) is essential. We applied to the whole Mediterranean environmental area (Southern and Northern) a modelling framework for structural estimates (PLS-PM) using qualitative and quantitative methods to combine local-level information from field surveys and participatory workshops with global-level data. Our findings show that farmland expansion and intensification spatially disconnected from urban consumption areas do not appear to foster LFSS. On the other hand, public policies appear key to enhancing LFSS in the Mediterranean area if appropriate to the particular regional context. We outline how this multi-level modelling methodology can contribute to a place-based approach by informing context-specific regionalised policies aimed at food security.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Esther Sanz Sanz) 12 Jan 2024

    https://hal.science/hal-04390996
  • [hal-04463774] Effects of glyphosate on earthworms: From fears to facts

    Article of glyphosate during the last renewal in 2017. Our findings also highlighted that negative effects can occur in earthworms at the recommended application rate, although not after only a single application or when considering only the mortality of adult individuals. However, under more realistic conditions, i.e., when assessing sensitive endpoints (e.g., reproduction, growth) and using species present in the field, after several applications per year, the negative effects of glyphosate or GBH on earthworms were observed at the subindividual, individual, population, and community levels, as well as on earthworm-mediated functions. Our recommendations are as follows: (i) competent agencies should collect more information on the toxicity of these compounds to earthworms before the next renewal deadline, with emphasis on the use of the updated legislation on the topic, and (ii) scientists should increase research on the effects of these herbicides on soil invertebrate species, with emphasis on earthworms, using guideline tests and obtain data from long-term field testing. Key Points A weak legislation led to improper assessment of the ecotoxicity of glyphosate during the last renewal in 2017 Negative effects of glyphosate or GBH on earthworms were observed at the subindividual, individual, population, and community levels, as well as on earthworm-mediated functions We urgently recommend more research on glyphosate and GBH in the laboratory and in the field, using several applications at the RAD, at time intervals that are normally used by farmers, and in research of more than one year.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Claudia de Lima E Silva) 17 Feb 2024

    https://hal.science/hal-04463774
  • [hal-04344102] Earthworms do not increase greenhouse gas emissions (CO2 and N2O) in an ecotron experiment simulating a three-crop rotation system

    Earthworms are known to stimulate soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but the majority of previous studies have used simplified model systems or lacked continuous high-frequency measurements. To address this, we conducted a 2-year study using large lysimeters (5 m 2 area and 1.5 m soil depth) in an ecotron facility, continuously measuring ecosystem-level CO 2 , N 2 O, and H 2 O fluxes. We investigated the impact of endogeic and anecic earthworms on GHG emissions and ecosystem water use efficiency (WUE) in a simulated agricultural setting. Although we observed transient stimulations of carbon fluxes in the presence of earthworms, cumulative fluxes over the study indicated no significant increase in CO 2 emissions. Endogeic earthworms reduced N 2 O emissions during the wheat culture (-44.6%), but this effect was not sustained throughout the experiment. No consistent effects on ecosystem evapotranspiration or WUE were found. Our study suggests that earthworms do not significantly contribute to GHG emissions over a two-year period in experimental conditions that mimic an agricultural setting. These findings highlight the need for realistic experiments and continuous GHG measurements.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Oswaldo Forey) 14 Dec 2023

    https://hal.science/hal-04344102

Animations scientifiques